For 28-year-old Cristina Paillal and many others from her generation in Chile, protesting has almost become the norm.
“The dictatorship lasted a long time. Our parents’ and grandparents’ generations lived with that fear,” Paillal, a Mapuche engineering student, said at a protest in Santiago, where tear gas lingered in the air.
“We are the new generation,” she said.
“The secondary student movement is fundamental,” she said.
Protests have immediately broadened into demonstrations over long-simmering grievances, including growing inequality and the dictatorship-era constitution.
“It is not the subway. It is everything,” Joaquin*, a 16-year-old student said.
‘Little has changed’
Secondary students were the protagonists of the 2006 “Penguin Revolution” movement for education reform, named after the appearance of school uniforms.
A new education law was passed in 2009, but it did not fundamentally resolve demands for state control and funding of public education. Mass protests by secondary and university students broke out again in 2011, and have occurred sporadically since.
“Little has changed,” said Joaquin. “People cannot afford good education.”
Along with protests last month, there were spates of arson and looting, with significant damage to many metro stations and supermarkets. President Sebastian Pinera decreed a state of emergency and sent the military into the streets.
However, major clashes between police and mob continues.
Prosecutors are investigating 26 people killed amid the turmoil, including four young men in their 20s killed by military forces. Of the 7,259 detainees visited in custody by the National Human Rights Institute, 867 have been minors.
In spite of the clampdown, daily marches, rallies, occupations, street barricades, citizen assemblies and other actions continue. Police often crack down with tear gas and force regardless of whether people are in joyous mass rallies, small groups fighting back with rocks, or simply bystanders in the area.
Carla*, a 20-year-old psychology student, said that everything began with the secondary students but now even universities without a history of social struggle have joined the protest movement.
‘We opened our eyes because of the students’
Citizen elections would take place in October 2020. The convention would have at least nine months to write the constitution and pass it with a two-thirds majority. It would require ratification by citizens in a nationwide referendum.
But many gaps remain concerning key procedural details, including issues of gender parity and indigenous representation.
Yet, protesters say the students are the ones who have brought thousands of others to the streets.
“We opened our eyes because of the students,” said Mario Hernandez, an unemployed nurse technician. “They woke us up. Then, we all woke up.”
Claudio Inostroza continued to joke with Hernandez and other friends but winced slightly as a medical student washed the blood off his calf.
Inostroza supports protesters’ collective demands for a new constitution, higher wages, and the right to health. But he said, above all, he is in the streets for his children: a son in primary school and a daughter with more than $50,000 of student debt just halfway through her university degree in nursing.
“I want my children to have free and quality education,” he said. “I am protesting for their future.”